Heating Rate in DSC

Engineered materials are becoming more complex in attempts to meat increasing needs, such as enhanced physical properties. With that, their characterization is becomes increasingly difficult. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermal analysis technique which tells of various thermal properties of a material such as phase transition temperatures. Many...

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Tensile Testing Yarn

Tensile strength is defined as the strength of a material under tension (pulling) as distinct from compression, torsion, or shear. The definition is vague because it covers a wide range of properties including Breaking force, Breaking strength, Breaking tenacity, Breaking toughness, Chord modulus, Elongation, Elongation at break, Elongation at...

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NIR Spectroscopy in the Food Industry

The infrared spectrum can be classified into three regions: near, mid, and far IR. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) typically uses mid- and far-infrared wavelengths to characterize specific bonds in a material. This method is most commonly used to identify organic and polymeric materials. Near IR is not as commonly...

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The Langmuir Adsorption Model

The study of physisorption goes back nearly 200 years and aims to explain the science of gas interactions on the surface of a material. This gas is known as an adsorbate and the process of this interaction is called adsorption. One of the many groundbreaking scientists who worked in...

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Surface Analysis by T-plot

Surfaces vary in multiple ways. For example, surface pores can vary by size, depth, and location. Various techniques exist that analyze the surface of a material, most of which rely heavily on the understanding of the existence of micro an mesopores. Micropores typically have a size of 20 Å,...

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Aspect Ratios in Particle Size Analysis

Particles can exist in a myriad of different shapes. This can make conducting particle size analysis (PSA) through laser diffraction difficult as it assumes that particles are spherical. Some examples of minerals whose particles are extremely nonspherical include Wollastonite (rod-shaped) and Garnet crystals (cubic). One important value to keep...

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Slurry Analysis with the Ultrapyc 5000

The Ultrapyc 5000 at the MCL measures the density of samples varying from 0.25 cc to 135 cc in volume, allowing for a wide variety of samples to be tested, including powders, solids, and slurries. Slurries are a suspension of solid in some liquid and are used in a...

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XRD % Crystallinity by the Integration Method

X-ray diffraction experiments can be explained by Bragg’s law. The reflected x-rays from long-range crystallographic order planes can be predicted using the following equation. Where n is an integer, λ is the wavelength of the incident x-rays, d is the inter-atomic spacing, and θ is the angle of incidence....

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XRD Phi Rotation Scanning

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful analytical tool for industry professionals and material scientists. A source (typically copper) produces x-rays which are directed at a flat sample. These x-rays are diffracted at certain angles by the crystal planes in the material and are detected at those angles. Based on...

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Heat Capacity by the Sapphire Method

The heat capacity of a material is a crucial property to consider when determining its functionality in certain applications. The typical SI unit of heat capacity (Cp) is Joules per gram Kelvin (). It is a measurement of how sensitive a material is to changes in temperature due to...

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